Text Size
Increase Font Size thesis theme custom front page
research proposal phd english literature
immigration argumentative essay
thesis binding services dublin
master thesis in philips
miranda v arizona essay help
cosmetology homework help
navy resume writer
built environment dissertation
animal testing persuasive speak
written assignment
diversified background cover letter
android widget videoview resume
phd research proposal mathematics education
an unforgettable day essay
phd thesis on transportation problem
how to write essay about my family tree
essay about mobile
essay about water is life
service oriented architecture business analyst resume
car sales executive resume
services marketing essay
sales office administrator cover letter
cover letter for sales consultant
capital budgeting thesis paper
the death of a salesman theme essay
resume bullets for budget management
voice recorder for homework
customer service food service resume
4th grade essay writing
digital media buyer resume
research papers on service quality
dissertation autobiographie exemple
web service resume
green purchase intention thesis
dissertation on finance
phd thesis in international relations
master thesis structural engineering
persuasive essay worksheet
research papers on consumer behaviour
resume help for engineers
ap english synthesis essay
cover letter grad school admission
bank financial services representative resume
what is exemplification essay
call center customer service manager resume
disobeying order essay
phd economics research proposal
phd thesis on image enhancement
essay introduction about fast food
fast food essays
promotional sales cover letter
custom home builder resume
dissertation subjects english literature
homework help with political science
dissertation on code switching
8th grade essay prompts
berlin symbole de la guerre froide dissertation
edgars and catherines relationship in wuthering heights
density functional theory phd thesis
opinion essay about keeping animals in zoos
promotional sales representative resume
dissertation about
argumentative essay about drinking age
telephone sales manager resume
customer care officer resume
price elasticity of demand extended essay
dissertation report on hr
graphic organizers for essay writing
service delivery literature review
diversity essay contest
do you agree that money can buy happiness essay
real estate sales consultant resume
writing a dissertation using secondary data
how to write an application letter to a company
writing personal essay for college admission christian
inside sales coordinator resume
service quality manager cover letter
heart of darkness essay help
master thesis in construction management
dissertation on teaching grammar
homework helper multiplying fractions
research paper on the bermuda triangle
essay about leadership in nursing
essay on science in service of humanity
buy essay compare and contrast
lord of the flies symbolism essay
essays on the civil rights movement
resume objective for customer service associate
master thesis declaration
college essay about volunteering at a hospital
divine wind essay
writing an autobiography essay
should fathers get paternity leave from work
customise paper report in foxpro 9 0
beowulf hero essay
damage medulla affects on mental processes and behaviour
paint sales associate resume
essay about electronic gadgets
research paper customer satisfaction
essays about cars
how to write a rough draft for an essay
phd thesis robot
dissertation help for dyslexics
resume for courier service
essay on my vision of an ideal world order
dna makes rna makes protein essay
bus driver customer service resume
wcf services resume
persuasive essays on racism
essay on rights and duties go together
spare parts sales engineer resume
essay teaching techniques
internet service providers research papers
cover letter chemistry phd
online toefl essay correction service
thesis statement on service dogs
cyber bullying essays
resume help for restaurant servers
corporate sales manager cover letter
the arab israeli conflict esseys
characteristics of a narrative essay
essay about physical bullying
insurance sales manager resume
phd thesis in translation
transfer student essay
ap latin essay help
career service specialist resume
do celebrities deserve privacy essay
essay about single and married life
thesis customer satisfaction
anti cancer phd thesis
essay about groupthink
customer service focused cover letter
comparative politics dissertation
resume pre sales
law and order svu anti thesis
essays on mother teresa
accounting phd thesis
boyles law homework help
how to write a 200 word essay about myself
financial services sales cover letter
salem witch trials and mccarthyism essay
cover letter corporate sales
fences by august wilson essay
new customer cover letter
dissertation on leadership succession
management consulting resume services
phd dissertation timetable
sales and event coordinator resume
sales director cv resume
dissertation employee retention
teacher cover letter help
utility service worker resume
resume help in san antonio
post traumatic stress disorder term paper
sales support officer cover letter
how to write a synopsis for a dissertation
educational philosophy papers
how to write an application essay 8th grade
books essay writing
fire safety essay
essay on goals
phd thesis massachusetts institute of technology
best medical sales cover letter
should rich countries help poor countries essay
attention getter essay quote
mba admissions essay writers scam
writing a dissertation in 6 months
essay about trees are our friends
phd thesis on air pollution
homework helpers reading comprehension
dedication dissertation
sex offenders outline
business law research papers
homework help irregular verbs
resume for industry phd
critical discourse analysis dissertation
do children learn through play essay
how to write a religion paper
two ways a woman can get hurt thesis
how to write an essay about my family
retail customer service experience resume
research paper about calories in fast foods
application essay writing quiz
essay on video games
educational philosophy essay
service project proposal essay
Reset Font Size Decrease Font Size
Home Women and Trauma

Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM)

An intervention program designed for women survivors of trauma

To address issues of physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse in a population of overwhelmed and vulnerable women who have histories of trauma, and for whom traditional recovery work has been unavailable or ineffective, Community Connections developed a theory-based group intervention program called "TREM," or the "Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model."

TREM's 4 core assumptions:

  • Some current dysfunctional behaviors and/or symptoms that women exhibit may have originated as coping responses to trauma.
  • Women who experienced repeated trauma in childhood were deprived of the opportunity to develop certain skills necessary for adult coping.
  • Trauma severs core connections to one's family, one's community, and ultimately to oneself.
  • Women who have been abused repeatedly feel powerless and unable to advocate for themselves.

TREM Program Format:

TREM is structured as a comprehensive group intervention program of 33 sessions offered over a 9-month period for trauma victims, led by trained women clinicians. Each session takes about 75 minutes and usually includes between 6 to 8 group members. The 33 sessions or topics are divided into the following sections:

Part I -- Empowerment (11 topics)
Introduces themes of gender identity, sexuality, interpersonal boundaries, and self-esteem without specifically addressing abuse issues.

Part II -- Trauma Recovery (10 topics)
Focuses on sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and their relationship to psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and current relationships.

Part III -- Advanced Trauma Recovery Issues (9 topics)
Examines further trauma issues such as blame, responsibility, and the role of forgiveness in recovery.

Part IV -- Closing Rituals (3 topics)
Allows group members to assess their own progress and are encouraged to plan for their continued healing either on their own or as part of a community of other survivors.

Part V -- Modifications or Supplements for Special Populations
Consists of modifications or supplements for special populations (women diagnosed with serious mental illness, incarcerated women, women who are parents, women who abuse, male survivors).

Each session also includes an experiential exercise (physical activity, poetry, singing, drawing, storytelling) to promote group cohesiveness and to allow for the inclusion of less verbal members.

FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions

The Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM)

What is TREM?

"TREM," the Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model, is a comprehensive group intervention designed to help women who have suffered from sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse and who have not been able to overcome this trauma with traditional recovery work. This approach emphasizes survivor empowerment and peer support, teaches techniques for self-soothing and recognizing social boundaries, and helps women learn to focus on manageable steps of problem-solving.

Why does TREM work?

TREM has been shown to work because it:

  • Uses a group format;
  • Uses a psycho-educational focus and skill-building approach;
  • Emphasizes survivor empowerment and peer support;
  • Teaches techniques for self-soothing, boundary maintenance, and current problem solving;
  • Is culturally sensitive;
  • Is sensitive in the areas of sexual orientation/relationship status; and
  • Can be used with women of all ages.

Who should use TREM?

  • Clinicians already doing trauma recovery work
  • Clinicians who plan on doing recovery work and want a step-by-step guide for group work
  • Residential, rape crisis, or hot-line counselors working with trauma survivors
  • Human services graduate students seeking a model for understanding trauma and its sequelae
  • Clinicians in mental health, substance abuse, prisons, and welfare-to-work programs who recognize the impact of trauma in the lives of women they serve

Who is using TREM now?

TREM is being used in outpatient mental health settings, homeless shelters, welfare-to-work programs, and corrections facilities (prisons). Several family court systems have also expressed interest in receiving training for their social workers to lead TREM groups with women in their systems. While it was designed in Washington, D.C., TREM is being used in other urban areas such as Philadelphia and Boston, and in more rural areas such as some in Colorado and Illinois.

Who developed TREM, and why?

Women who have experienced physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse in childhood, and who live in the social, emotional, or economic margin as adults, rarely fit neatly into existing treatments for trauma recovery. These women almost always lack the economic resources needed to participate in individual therapy; they are judged to be too emotionally fragile or disruptive for most group therapies; and they do not have the social supports needed to sustain participation in standard self-help formats. Yet, these women present themselves for treatment at public clinics, through employee assistance programs, and at non-profit social service agencies in ever-increasing numbers.

When Community Connections first opened its doors, it did not envision that it would be doing trauma work. Over 90% of Community Connections' "consumers" ("survivors," "ex-patients," or "clients"), however, who have histories of mental disorders, substance abuse, and/or homelessness also have experienced physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse. Community Connections therefore found that it could not deliver the services it was mandated to provide without addressing the often overwhelming histories of trauma that its consumers (clients) had suffered and survived. With considerable input from consumers and clinicians, Community Connections has been designing intervention approaches that are different from what most of the existing literature describes to meet the needs of these women in a comprehensive manner.

Community Connections saw the need to create an intervention that dealt with the fact that many of the women themselves did not view abuse as their primary problem but had rather labeled themselves in other ways, such as complaining about depression or anxiety. They may suffer from physical ailments such as headaches, muscle pains, or stomach aches. Sometimes they reveal that they have had difficulty forming relationships or that they drink more than they feel comfortable admitting. Occasionally, they report having been victimized by current domestic partners and having experience bouts of homelessness. Almost never do these women link current difficulties to past abuses. In part this is because the link has never been made for them.

For more information on TREM, contact:
Rebecca Wolfson, M.S.W.
Training Coordinator Community Connections
801 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE
Suite 201
Washington, DC 20003
202-608-4735 phone
202-548-4898 fax
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
www.communityconnectionsdc.org